The Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
- Level 1: Initial (Anarchy) -- Unpredictable
- Level 2: Repeatable (Folklore) -- Can repeat previously mastered tasks
- Level 3: Defined (Standards) -- Process written down, understood
- Level 4: Manged (Measurement) -- Process measured & controlled
- Level 5: Optimizing (Optimization) -- Process improved
Most companies are at Level 1. Even Microsoft is somewhere between Level 1 and 2.
Very few (less then a dozen?) companies are at Level 5; one of these is NASA.
A related topic is Cleanroom Software Engineering -